Portrait of an 18th century man with a book called: the Biterrois Jean Barbeyrac, apostle of natural law holding in his hand the translation of the work of Samuel von Pufendorf: The Duties of Man and Citizen, such as they him are prescribed by natural law (1707).
For the record: PUFENDORF, BARBEYRAC (Jean), LEIBNIZ
The Duties of Man and Citizen (Citizen), as prescribed by Natural Law. Translated from the Latin of the late Baron de Pufendorf, by Jean Barbeyrac
Further information :
In the article Moraliste de l’Encyclopédie de Diderot, written by Louis de Jaucourt, one can read: La Placette who treated this science according to luminous principles. »
Donato Pelayo likes to write:
Its importance is also attested by the main linchpin of the Civil Code, the lawyer and jurisconsult Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis (1746-1807) whose contribution was much greater than that improperly lent to Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès (1753 -1824), which had only a supervisory role, important but secondary compared to the titanic work represented by the considerable corpus of thousands of articles. Portalis, a former student of the Aix-en Provence School of Law, associates the work of Jean Barbeyrac with that of Grotius and Pufendorf, who, according to him, « laid the foundations of general political law which founded the human societies, and who preserves them”.
The historian Charles Weiss, (1812-1864), who published in 1853 an impressive History of the Protestant refugees of France since the revocation of the Edict of Nantes until our days, grants to Jean Barbeyrac an eminent place among the intelligentsia born in the exile of hundreds of families of pastors hunted down for not wanting to deny their faith.
The interest shown in the work of Jean Barbeyrac has never wavered.
In addition to these two translations with extensive commentaries which constitute his major work, Jean Barbeyrac wrote and published in 1709 the two volumes of a Treatise on the game, where the main questions of natural law and morality which relate to this matter. In doing so, he is in full harmony with the concerns of his time when the craze for games had become a real social phenomenon which gave rise, especially among commentators close to the Church, to moral treatises condemning these playful practices. Chess, whist, piquet, pharaoh and multiple variations of card games gave rise to the publication of many books that the public tore off. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, during his stay in Montpellier, noticed that “the ladies spend the morning lighting up, the afternoon in the pharaoh and the night in debauchery” (sic).
Without speaking out against the virtue of entertainment, he condemns gambling and organized cheating. Like Aristotle and Cicero, he equates professional gamblers with real thieves. On the other hand, it praises reasonable and disinterested players for whom the practice of this hobby is only a factor of conviviality and a purely playful exercise.
Jean Barbeyrac devoted himself throughout his life to teaching and spreading two essential works which he completed with such happiness through his commentaries that he ended up being almost confused with their two authors.
A man totally devoted to studies and reflection, he nevertheless found the time to marry Hélène Chauvin in 1702, daughter of Étienne Chauvin, a pastor from Nîmes who had taken refuge in Berlin. The couple had four children: Catherine Hélène, Esther, Jean Pierre Victor and Antoine. His wife died in 1730 and his children were already all gone by 1743, a year before his own death. Only his daughter Esther, who had married in 1734 Paul Auguste Brunet de Rochebrune (1699-1753), had descendants.
The name of Barbeyrac is now attached to the notion of natural law.
Duties of man and citizen. Volume 1 / , as prescribed by natural law, translated from the Latin of Baron de Puffendorff, by Jean Barbeyrac,… New edition… Date of original edition: 1756
(Samuel von Pufendorf, born January 8, 1632 in Dorfchemnitz in Saxony, died October 13, 1694 (aged 62) in Berlin, was a German historian, jurist and philosopher, representative of modern or Protestant natural law.)
Pufendorf lives in the period following the treaties of Westphalia. That is to say, at a time when the Holy Roman Empire had to face three major problems: abroad, it had to keep France, the Netherlands and England abroad West, from the Ottoman Empire to the east; internally, he must rebuild the power relations between the semi-autonomous states of the Empire (Austria, Bavaria, Palatinate of the Rhine, Electorate of Saxony, Electorate of Brandenburg which will become, just after Pufendorf’s death, Prussia ) and avoid falling back into a sectarian war.
One of the purposes of his writings is precisely to avoid conflicts that he perceives as harmful. To this end, he develops a type of Natural Law, called Protestant, which is distinguished from the metaphysical, neo-scholastic or even Platonic tradition represented by the School of Salamanca or in the Holy Roman Empire by Leibniz and Christian Wolff (philosopher). If he is known as a jurist, he also wrote a lot on history, especially on the history of Sweden, of the Holy Roman Empire, on the relations between States and Churches. He has also written on religious tolerance and on the Baconian theme of innovation in politics. He is a man whose clearly written and easily accessible work had a strong influence during the eighteenth century. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was influenced by the annotated translations of Jean Barbeyrac, while he is credited with having been one of the inspirations of the principles of the American Constitution of 1787. However, directly or indirectly, researchers in the following centuries hold it also responsible for the ambiguities of the notion of natural law
Dimensions: H 70 W 55
Very good state. Rear frame